Omotunde E. G. Johnson, PhD (Economics). Today, Krios make up about 2% of Sierra Leone's population. He belonged to the ‘Clapham Sect’ that included abolitionists such as William Wilberforce, Zachary Macaulay and Thomas Clarkson (In 1792, this sect subsequently founded in Sierra Leone what would become the first major British Colony in Africa). Krio is the most widely spoken language in Sierra Leone and is native to the Creoles who are freed slaves from Britain, The United States and West Indies. “The Plaintiffs,” Dr. Dove-Edwin explained, “are claiming that the Provinces Lands Act, Cap. They assist poorer relatives with school fees and job opportunities. the Black Poor, the Nova Scotians, the Maroons and Recaptives) make up the unique ethnic group known as the ‘Krios’. The colony was established by the British, supported by abolitionists, under the Sierra Leone Company as a place for freedmen. Quick Links He was an IMF Staff for some twenty years. 2 freed peoples arrived in Freetown.2 Some of these individuals were then forcefully relocated to Gambia and the West Indies or enlisted in the imperial army, but others remained in Sierra Leone and worked in agriculture and the urban economy.3 These freed peoples, or “liberated Africans,” who settled in Freetown became known as Creoles or Krios.4 As British colonialism intensified [3] The Americo-Liberians and the Sierra Leone Creoles are the only recognised ethnic group of African-American, Liberated African, and West Indian descent in West Africa. The next group resettled were the ‘Maroons’, ferocious ex-slaves from the Jamaican mountainside. The British resettled 3,000 of the African Americans in Nova Scotia, where many found the climate and racial discrimination harsh. Because some of the Sherbro interacted with Portuguese and English traders and intermarried with them in the mid-fifteenth to eighteenth centuries (producing Afro-European clans such as the Sherbro Tuckers and Sherbro Caulkers), some of the Sherbro have a more westernized culture than that of other Sierra Leone ethnic groups. He has published numerous economics papers in several academic journals, as well as academic economics books, especially on economic development and financial sector development. Portions of the meal are placed into a hole for the dead. Krio is the primary language of communication among Sierra Leoneans at home and abroad. The proponents and directors of the Sierra Leone colony believed that a new colony did not need black settlers from London. Sierra Leone Creoles who settled in the Gambia became part of the Aku or Gambian Creole people; they make up an elite community in Gambia. The Nova Scotians were more resilient than their predecessors. Through the Jamaican Maroons, some Creoles probably also have indigenous Jamaican Amerindian Taíno ancestry. [citation needed]. [7]:5, Initially the British intervened to ensure the Recaptives became firmly rooted in Freetown society; they served in the army with the West India Regiment, and they were assigned as apprentices in the houses of Settlers and Maroons. The Krios of Sierra Leone is delivered with the support of Iyamide Thomas of The Krios Dot Com. The Krios application makes it easy to access the company's data and applications, giving you access wherever you are to your system. L-R: Granville Sharp, Olaudah Equiano, William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson (Google Images). Email: kdufloridainc@yahoo.com. Watch and learn a little about the Krio people of Sierra Leone. The Creoles as a class developed close relationships with the British colonial power; they became educated in British institutions and advanced to prominent leadership positions in Sierra Leone under British colonialism. [15], As the Recaptives began to trade and spread Christianity throughout West Africa, they began to dominate Freetown society. In early 1791 Alexander Falconbridge returned, to find only 64 of the original residents (39 black men, 19 black women, and six white women). On 11 March 1792, the Nova Scotian Settlers disembarked from the 14 passenger ships that had carried them from Nova Scotia to Sierra Leone and marched toward a large cotton tree near George Street. Like their Americo-Liberian neighbors and sister ethnic group in Liberia, Sierra Leone Creoles have varying degrees of European ancestry due to the close historical relations between the ethnicities through decades of indenture, slavery and sexual abuse, and voluntary unions and marriages in North America. The Temne ransacked Granville Town and took some Black Poor into slavery, while others became slave traders. On Sunday, 31 August 2020, the Krio Descendants Union – Freetown, representing Krios across Sierra Leone and the diaspora – the descendants of those freed slaves, hosted its first virtual international inter-faith Thanksgiving Service to celebrate 233 years of a rich and vibrant heritage. BLACK POOR AND PROVINCE OF FREEDOM 1787–1789. The Krios of Sierra Leone historic links to Britain began with Britain’s part in that heinous ‘Slave Trade’– for the ethnic group called ‘Krios’ are descendants of various African American, Caribbean, and African ex-slaves and freemen who the British resettled in Africa in the modern day West African country of Sierra Leone. They also have more traditional African culture, and widely practice formal polygamy and, to a significant extent, practice female genital mutilation. [16] The following is a typical spider tale: Once the spider was fat. The descendants of these four settler groups (i.e. Although Creoles are primarily Protestant, there are a small number of Creole Catholics who attend Catholic churches such as St. Anthony's Church in Brookfields and the Sacred Heart Cathedral, Freetown. These settlers were Black Loyalists, American slaves who had escaped to British lines and fought with them during the American Revolution, to earn freedom. By the 1820’s they had become the Black bourgeoisie. It is the result of the unfortunate history with the Brits using them during the colonial era. For life cycle ceremonies related to death among the Creoles, one such ceremony is the babichu or barbeque of Jamaican Maroon and the subsequently more prevalent Liberated African awujoh feast, intended to celebrate the anniversaries of ancestors who have passed away. In addition to English, the Sierra Leone Creoles also speak a distinctive creole language[2]:xxi named after their ethnic group called Creole or Krio. Either way, education is very important to Krios. Thirty-eight African Americans (nine families) immigrated to Freetown under the auspices of African-American ship owner Paul Cuffe, of Boston. Viewing 15 posts - … In 1787, the British helped 400 freed slaves, primarily African Americans freed during the American Revolutionary War who had been evacuated to London, and West Indians and Africans from London, to relocate to Sierra Leone to settle in what they called the "Province of Freedom." Then it is placed in a coffin and taken to the church for the service, and lastly to the cemetery for burial. Prayer Points * Scripture Prayers for the Krio, Aku in Gambia. The Krios are descendants from ex-enslaved African American, Caribbean, African and free peoples who settled in the Western Area of Sierra Leone. The next arrivals were the Jamaican Maroons; these maroons came specifically from Cudjoe's Town (Trelawny Town), one of the five Maroon cities in Jamaica. However, smaller denominations such as the Baptist church and Countess of Huntingdon denominations in places such as Freetown, and Waterloo, Sierra Leone also have Creole attendees, although these are smaller in number compared to Creole Anglicans and Methodists. The Sierra Leone Creoles settled across West Africa in the nineteenth century in communities such as Limbe, Cameroon, Conakry, Guinea, Banjul, Gambia, Lagos, Nigeria, Abeokuta, Calabar, Onitsha, Nigeria Accra, Ghana, Cape Coast, Fernando Pó. [7]:3–4, 223–255. [2] Today, the Sierra Leone Creoles are 1.3% of the population of Sierra Leone.[1]. As a result of normal immigration patterns, the Sierra Leone Civil War, and some discrimination at home, many Sierra Leone Creoles live abroad in the United States and the United Kingdom. Prayer Points * Scripture Prayers for the Krio, Creole in Sierra Leone. Krios are actually one of the most educated groups in Sierra Leone. The settlers called their new settlement Freetown. Sivapragasam, Michael, 'Why Did Black Londoners not join the Sierra Leone Resettlement Scheme 1783-1815?’ Unpublished Masters dissertation (London: Open University, 2013), p. 36. After the religious services, the settlement was officially established and was designated Freetown. The first settlers sent to Sierra Leone by the British were of Black American, African, Caribbean, and Bengali descent and were known collectively as the 'Black Poor'. [7], The first settlers to find a colony in Sierra Leone were the so-called "Black Poor": African Americans and West Indians. But both villages began eating at the same time, and when the sons began pulling the rope, it grew tighter and tighter, squeezing the greedy spider. Sierra Leonean Creole or Krio is an English-based creole language that is lingua franca and de facto national language spoken throughout the West African nation of Sierra Leone. The descendants of African Americans remained an identifiable ethnic group until the 1870s, when the Creole identity was beginning to form. The British had resettled some in Nova Scotia, Canada where they soon felt the familiar hand of discrimination and the harsh Canadian winter! The Krios are descendants of freed African American, West Indian and Liberated African slaves who settled in the Western Area of Sierra Leone. Creole denominations are mainly Protestant with the Anglican and Methodist churches having the largest Creole congregants. In 1993, there were 473,000 speakers in Sierra Leone (493,470 in all countries); Krio was the third-most spoken language behind Mende (1,480,000) and Themne (1,230,000). He knew that if he visited friends, they would feed him as was the custom. One called Thomas Peters travelled to London to protest their situation and returned to orchestrate their resettlement to Sierra Leone. Some have Native American ancestry as well. They had a profound influence on Creole culture; many of the Western attributes of Creole society were conveyed by the "Settlers", who continued what was familiar to them from their past lives. As Creoles settled in places such as Bonthe for trading and missionary purposes, the Creoles intermarried with their allies the Sherbros from as far back as the 18th century. Family members who do well are expected to help those who are less fortunate. [11] There the settlers reestablished Granville Town. The Krios consider this law as a discriminatory colonial statute inherited from the British. The whole of Sierra Leone covers some 72,500 square kilometres. Sharp also conceived the idea of founding a ‘Province of Freedom’ in Africa for their resettlement. However, since the independence of Sierra Leone, all ethnic groups in Sierra Leone have been inter-marrying increasingly. Despite their dilapidated appearance, some of the remaining traditional Creole board houses have a distinctive air, with dormers, box windows, shutters, glass panes, and balconies. Some 1200 of these blacks emigrated to Sierra Leone from Halifax Harbour on 15 January 1792, arriving between 28 February and 9 March 1792. The Liberated Africans included people from the Yoruba, Igbo, Efik, Fante, and other ethnicities of West Africa. In most Creole families, women and elder siblings care for the children and domestic servants or children in the family are expected to clean the house, do the shopping/selling, cook meals, wash dishes and clothes, and carry wood and water. The next day the body is washed, placed in shrouds (burial cloths), and laid on a bed for a final viewing. This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 19:24. At its northern tip lies Freetown, the capital. The immigrants arrived in Sierra Leone in May 1787 and established ‘Granville Town’. Like their Americo-Liberian neighbours, Sierra Leone Creoles have varying degrees of European ancestry because some of the settlers were descended from white Americans and other Europeans. The colony Sierra Leone was established by the British, supported by abolitionists, under the Sierra Leone Company as a place for freedmen. On the voyage between Plymouth and Sierra Leone, 96 passengers died. [citation needed], The Creole homeland is a mountainous, narrow peninsula on the coast of west Africa. The Creoles observe dating and marriage customs that reflect their British oriented culture but also African American, Afro-Caribbean, and broader West African cultural retentions. Creoles have christening and baptismal ceremonies but also have a naming ceremony or "pull na doh" on the seventh day following the birth, which is held to celebrate the birth of a new born. Creoles marry in church weddings and in the Victorian and Edwardian era, relatives sought out and introduced prospective suitors from desirable families to their kin seeking a spouse. Many Creoles traded throughout West Africa, and some settled in new countries. The settlers called their new settlement Freetown. The directors decided to offer resettlement to African Americans from Nova Scotia, despite the failure of the last colony. [citation needed]. The Sierra Leone Creole people (Krio: Krio people) is an ethnic group in Sierra Leone. The ‘Krios of Sierra Leone’ is a new display at the Museum of London Docklands that tells the story of Sierra Leone’s Krio people. 411 settlers arrived in May 1787. Anna Falconridge portrayed these white women as prostitutes from Deptford Prison, but they were most likely wives and girlfriends of the black settlers. Statue of Thomas Peters, African American leader of the founding ettlers of Freetown, Sierra Leone. However, older Sierra Leone Creoles still dress conservatively in Western-style suits and dresses and some Creole women still wear the Jamaican Maroon Kabaslot, Kotoku, and carpet slippers and its derivative, the print which is a fusion of older African American, Afro-Caribbean and British dress styles. A Creole or Krio Heritage Society is based in New York City, with branches in places like Texas. [citation needed]. For example, Creoles practice combine British Christian cultural practices and certain elements of African rituals in connection with rites of passage such as the births and deaths. A large dam in the mountains[19] provides a reliable supply of water and electricity to this area. Many were skilled artisans or had other trades. Thomas Sylvester Johnson, Assistant Bishop of Sierra Leone, M.A. [citation needed]. On the third, seventh, and fortieth day after death, awujoh feasts are held. In 1807 the British Parliament passed a bill forbidding the slave trade within the British Empire and from 1808 onwards thousands of people resettled in Freetown were known as the ‘Liberated Africans’ or ‘Recaptives’, for they had been rescued from slave ships before they reached the shores of the Americas. More than 1200 volunteered to settle and establish the new colony of Freetown, which was established by British abolitionists under the Sierra Leone Company. Many Creoles attend formal and informal gatherings. While the Settlers, Maroons, and transatlantic immigrants gave the Creoles their Christianity, some of their customs, and their Western influence, the Liberated Africans modified their customs to adopt those of the Nova Scotians and Europeans, yet kept some of their ethnic traditions. The mourning period lasts one year. The Krios of Sierra Leone historic links to Britain began with Britain’s part in that heinous ‘Slave Trade’– for the ethnic group called ‘Krios’ are descendants of various African American, Caribbean, and African ex-slaves and freemen who the British resettled in Africa in the modern day West African country of Sierra Leone.Here is their story: [6], Some members of Temne, Limba, Mende, and Loko groups, indigenous Sierra Leone ethnicities, were also among the Liberated Africans resettled at Freetown; they also assimilated into Creole culture. Together, this will highlight the diversity of cultures brought to Sierra Leone that became uniquely Krio. Prominent Creole families of more recent Afro-Caribbean ancestry include the Farquhar family and their descendants such as the Stuart family and Conton family who settled in Sierra Leone from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Bermuda between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They built a new settlement called ‘Freetown’ which was the basis for the new Colony of Sierra Leone that eventually encompassed Granville Town. In 1800, the British also transported 550 Jamaican Maroons, militant escaped slaves from Jamaica, to Sierra Leone and subsequent waves of African American and Afro-Caribbean immigrants would settle in Sierra Leone throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 1772 Lord Chief Justice Mansfield declared slavery illegal in Great Britain, through efforts of abolitionists such as, between the colonists and indigenous people left only 64 original. Creoles enjoy alcoholic drinks such as beer, gin, and palm wine. The Liberated Africans were multi-ethnic and were largely Akan, Aja, Ewe, Bacongo, Angolan, Wolof, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, Bambara, Nupe, and Fulani people who had been enslaved by illegal slave traders. 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