[6][7], Rape of the Sabine Women, by Nicolas Poussin, Rome, 1637–38 (Louvre Museum). The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed in law and in 31 BC, war began again. Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and remained loyal to Rome until the fall of the Western Empire in 476 AD. [107] Hannibal then raised an army in Iberia and famously crossed the Italian Alps with elephants to invade Italy. The Romans were defeated at the Battle of Suthul[169] but fared better at the Battle of the Muthul[170] and finally defeated Jugurtha at the Battle of Thala,[171][172] the Battle of Mulucha,[173] and the Battle of Cirta (104 BC). The Fourth Macedonian War, fought from 150 BC to 148 BC, was the final war between Rome and Macedon and began when Andriscus usurped the Macedonian throne. Early in his reign Tarquinius Superbus, Rome's seventh and final king, called a meeting of the Latin leaders at which he persuaded them to renew their treaty with Rome and become her allies rather than her enemies, and it was agreed that the troops of the Latins would attend at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina on an appointed day to form a united military force with the troops of Rome. This fear drove a group of senators naming themselves The Liberators to assassinate him in 44 BC. In 405 AD, the Ostrogoths invaded Italy itself, but were defeated. Conquest of the Iberian peninsula (219–18 BC), Macedon, the Greek poleis, and Illyria (215–148 BC), Campaign against the Cilician pirates (67 BC), Triumvirates, Caesarian ascension, and revolt (53–30 BC), Struggle with the Sassanid Empire (230–363 AD), Collapse of the Western Empire (402–476 AD), wars with various Latin cities and the Sabines, preliminary low-scale invasions of Britain, Usurpation of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, Conspiracy of Catiline and the Jurgurthine War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Campaign_history_of_the_Roman_military&oldid=996905187, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Events before the city was founded or planned, which have been handed down more as pleasing poetic fictions than as reliable records of historical events, I intend neither to affirm nor to refute. [208] Although "fierce and able"[207] the Gauls were handicapped by internal disunity and fell in a series of battles over the course of a decade.[207][209]. The Roman army had not yet seen elephants in battle,[75] and their inexperience turned the tide in Pyrrhus' favour at the Battle of Heraclea in 280 BC,[72][75][77] and again at the Battle of Ausculum in 279 BC. [121] In the Battle of Carthage the city was stormed after a short siege and completely destroyed,[123] its culture "almost totally extinguished".[124]. Between 135 BC and 71 BC there were three Servile Wars against the Roman state, the third and most serious,[182] may have involved the revolution of 120,000[183] to 150,000[184] slaves. Despite the encompassing of lands around the periphery of the Mediterranean sea, naval battles were typically less significant than land battles to the military history … Rome's last gasp began when the Visigoths revolted around 395 AD. In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum. The Cherusci, Bructeri, Tencteri, Usipi, Marsi, and Chatti of Varus' time had by the 3rd century either evolved into or been displaced by a confederacy or alliance of Germanic tribes collectively known as the Alamanni,[308] first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213 AD. The First Punic War began in 264 BC when settlements on Sicily began to appeal to the two powers between which they lay – Rome and Carthage – in order to solve internal conflicts. [135][244][245] Despite the loss of a large army almost to the man of Varus' famous defeat at the hands of the Germanic leader Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD,[246][247][248] Rome recovered and continued its expansion up to and beyond the borders of the known world. [269], On the continent, the extension of the Empire's borders beyond the Rhine hung in the balance for some time, with the emperor Caligula apparently poised to invade Germania in 39 AD, and Cnaeus Domitius Corbulo crossing the Rhine in 47 AD and marching into the territory of the Frisii and Chauci. Under Lucius Mummius, Corinth was destroyed following a siege in 146 BC, leading to the surrender and thus conquest of the Achaean League (see Battle of Corinth). Within the space of a single century, twenty-seven military officers declared themselves emperors and reigned over parts of the empire for months or days, all but two meeting with a violent end. [227] Pompey's forces retreated south towards Brundisium,[228] and then fled to Greece. Emperor Lucius Verus and general Gaius Avidius Cassius were sent in 162 AD to counter the resurgent Parthia. The Roman army, arguably one of the longest surviving and most effective fighting forces in military history, has a rather obscure beginning. According to Livy, the Latin village of Caenina responded to the event of the abduction of the Sabine women by invading Roman territory, but were routed and their village captured. Most of this was unknown to the Romans at this time, who still had purely local security concerns, but the Romans were alerted when a particularly warlike tribe,[52][53] the Senones,[53] invaded the Etruscan province of Siena from the north and attacked the town of Clusium,[54] not far from Rome's sphere of influence. [199] Following a consular term, he was then appointed to a five year term as Proconsular Governor of Transalpine Gaul (current southern France) and Illyria (the coast of Dalmatia). These accounts were written by various authors throughout and after the history of the Empire. Otho decided to commit suicide rather than fight on.[296]. This move formalised and concluded a gradual process that had been growing for centuries, of removing property requirements for military service. Many theories have been advanced in way of explanation for decline of the Roman Empire, and many dates given for its fall, from the onset of its decline in the 3rd century[347] to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. A number of points of view have been proposed. [10], Although the Roman historian Livy (59 BC – 17 AD)[11] lists a series of seven kings of early Rome in his work Ab urbe condita, from its establishment through its earliest years, the first four kings (Romulus,[12] Numa,[13][14] Tullus Hostilius[14][15] and Ancus Marcius)[14][16] may be apocryphal. [119] In 203 BC at the Battle of Bagbrades the invading Roman army under Scipio Africanus Major defeated the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax and Hannibal was recalled to Africa. Early successes by the rebels, including the repulse of the First Siege of Jerusalem[304] and the Battle of Beth-Horon,[304] only attracted greater attention from Rome and Emperor Nero appointed general Vespasian to crush the rebellion. His military ability was tested by an attack from the Sabines. [275], Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles,[276] defeated the Dacian general Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. Caesar chose Civil War over laying down his command and facing trial. The Pannonian revolt in 6 AD[245] forced the Romans to cancel their plan to cement their conquest of Germania. From 206 BC onwards the only opposition to Roman control of the peninsula came from within the native Celtiberian tribes themselves, whose disunity prevented their security from Roman expansion. [361], It is in this climate that, despite his earlier setback, Alaric returned again in 410 AD and managed to sack Rome. Although the crisis of the 3rd century was not the absolute beginning of Rome's decline, it nevertheless did impose a severe strain on the empire as Romans waged war on one another as they had not done since the last days of the Republic. In response to Jugurtha's usurpation of the Numidian throne,[164] a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars,[165] Rome intervened. In 260 AD at the Battle of Edessa the Sassanids defeated the Roman army[346] and captured the Roman Emperor Valerian. These accounts were written by … [132] Viriathus' new coalition bested Roman armies at the Second Battle of Mount Venus in 144 BC and again at the failed Siege of Erisone. [285][286] However, Vitellius, governor of the province of Germania Inferior, had also claimed the throne[287][288] and marched on Rome with his troops. The Second Samnite War, from 327 BC to 304 BC, was a much longer and more serious affair for both the Romans and Samnites,[67] running for over twenty years and incorporating twenty-four battles[60] that led to massive casualties on both sides. They defeated Aurelian at the Battle of Placentia in 271 AD but were beaten back for a short time after they lost the battles of Fano and Pavia later that year. The remaining main body of the Sabines attacked Rome and briefly captured the citadel, but were then convinced to conclude a treaty with the Romans under which the Sabines became Roman citizens.[21]. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Romans at War. In response to Jugurtha's usurpation of the Numidian throne,[162] a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars,[163] Rome intervened. However, Rome still controlled only a very limited area and the affairs of Rome were minor even to those in Italy[45] and Rome's affairs were only just coming to the attention of the Greeks, the dominant cultural force at the time. [125], Following two small-scale rebellions in 197 BC,[126] in 195–194 BC war broke out between the Romans and the Lusitani people in the Lusitanian War, in modern-day Portugal. In 405 AD, the Ostrogoths invaded Italy itself, but were defeated. Stilicho again attacked at the Battle of Verona[356] and again defeated Alaric,[357] forcing him to withdraw from Italy. It had shown that it was capable of pitting its armies successfully against the dominant military powers of the Mediterranean, and further showed that the Greek kingdoms were incapable of defending their colonies in Italy and abroad. In 51 BC, some Roman senators demanded that Caesar would not be permitted to stand for Consul unless he turned over control of his armies to the state, and the same demands were made of Pompey by other factions. Julian was killed in the Battle of Samarra during the retreat, possibly by one of his own men. The situation was complex, often with three or more usurpers in existence at once. [63] The First Samnite War of between 343 BC and 341 BC that followed widespread Samnite incursions into Rome's territory[64] was a relatively short affair: the Romans beat the Samnites in both the Battle of Mount Gaurus in 342 BC and the Battle of Suessula in 341 BC but were forced to withdraw from the war before they could pursue the conflict further due to the revolt of several of their Latin allies in the Latin War.[65][66]. However, the south of Italy was controlled by the Greek colonies of Magna Grecia[72] who had been allied to the Samnites, and continued Roman expansion brought the two into inevitable conflict.[73][74]. Second Macedonian War: Roman victory. [133] In 136 and 135 BC, more attempts were made to gain complete control of the region of Numantia, but they failed. The core of the campaign history of the Roman Republican military is the account of the Roman military's land battles. [139], The First Macedonian War saw the Romans involved directly in only limited land operations. [69] When the Roman army won a convincing victory over these combined forces it must have become clear that little could prevent Roman dominance of Italy and in the Battle of Populonia (282 BC) Rome finished off the last vestiges of Etruscan power in the region. [257] Following a general uprising[258][259] in which the Britons sacked Colchester,[260] St Albans[261] and London,[261][262] the Romans suppressed the rebellion in the Battle of Watling Street[263][264] and went on to push as far north as central Scotland in the Battle of Mons Graupius. They did not pick any particular target since the Romans were so close together that they could hardly miss...If they kept their ranks they were wounded. Brutus also committed suicide shortly afterwards. Unable to take the city by force of arms, Tarquin had his son, Sextus Tarquinius, infiltrate the city, gain the trust of its people and command of its army. After campaigns as far abroad as Bactria, India, Persia and Judea, Antiochus moved to Asia Minor and Thrace[153] to secure several coastal towns, a move that brought him into conflict with Roman interests. [162] The Jugurthine War of 111–104 BC was fought between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia and constituted the final Roman pacification of Northern Africa,[163] after which Rome largely ceased expansion on the continent after reaching natural barriers of desert and mountain. Ancus Marcius led Rome to victory against the Latins and, according to the Fasti Triumphales, over the Veientes and Sabines also. [141] Rome gave Philip an ultimatum that he must submit Macedonia to being essentially a Roman province. The arrival of the Roman Stilicho and his army forced Alaric to lift his siege and move his army towards Hasta (modern Asti) in western Italy, where Stilicho attacked it at the Battle of Pollentia,[356][357] capturing Alaric's camp. Tarquinius doubled the numbers of equites to help the war effort,[23] and defeat the Sabines. Carthage, the second largest city in the empire, was lost along with much of North Africa in 439 AD to the Vandals,[374][375] and the fate of Rome seemed sealed. By the 2nd century AD the territories of Persia were controlled by the Arsacid dynasty and known as the Parthian Empire. One of the first full time, paid professional armies in the world, even just the threat of Roman military might was enough to quickly frighten potential enemies into submission without a single blow being struck. [241] Further civil war followed between those loyal to Caesar and those who supported the actions of the Liberators. In this sense had Odoacer not renounced the title of Emperor and named himself "King of Italy" instead, the Empire might have continued in name. Octavian betrayed his party, and came to terms with Caesarians Antony and Lepidus and on 26 November 43 BC the Second Triumvirate was formed,[242] this time in an official capacity. [94], After having won control of the seas, a Roman force landed on the African coast under Regulus, who was at first victorious, winning the Battle of Adys[95] and forcing Carthage to sue for peace. [140], Macedon began to encroach on territory claimed by several other Greek city states in 200 BC and these pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. According to Livy, the Latin village of Caenina responded to the event of the abduction of the Sabine women by invading Roman territory, but were routed and their village captured. Within the space of a single century, twenty-seven military officers declared themselves emperors and reigned over parts of the empire for months or days, all but two meeting with a violent end. Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century. In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum. 200 BCE - 196 BCE. Perhaps unintentionally[52] the Romans found themselves not just in conflict with the Senones, but their primary target. [172] Jugurtha was finally captured not in battle but by treachery,[173][174] ending the war. [75] While Beneventum was indecisive,[81] Pyrrhus realised that his army had been exhausted and reduced by years of foreign campaigns, and seeing little hope for further gains, he withdrew completely from Italy. Its identity, however, was no longer Roman – it was increasingly populated and governed by Germanic peoples long before 476 AD. Albinus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in Britain and, crossing over to Gaul, defeated Severus' general Virius Lupus in battle, before being in turn defeated and killed in the Battle of Lugdunum by Severus himself. A Roman force under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeated Antiochus at the Battle of Thermopylae[145] and forced him to evacuate Greece:[152] the Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them again in naval battles at the Battle of the Eurymedon and Battle of Myonessus, and finally in a decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia. [294][300] The rebelling Batavians were immediately joined by several neighbouring German tribes including the Frisii. [38] One by one, Rome defeated both the persistent Sabines and the local cities that were either under Etruscan control or else Latin towns that had cast off their Etruscan rulers, as had Rome. In 46 BC Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army when his former commander Titus Labienus, who had defected to the Pompeians several years earlier, defeated him at the Battle of Ruspina. These accounts were written by various authors throughout and after the history of the Empire. [239] Together with Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's wife Fulvia raised an army in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian but she was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Perugia. [189] Whatever the merits of his grievances against those in power of the state, his actions marked a watershed of the willingness of Roman troops to wage war against one another that was to pave the way for the wars of the triumvirate, the overthrowing of the Senate as the de facto head of the Roman state, and the eventual endemic usurpation of power by contenders for the emperor-ship in the later Empire. These wars, starting in 264 BC[87] were probably the largest conflicts of the ancient world yet[88] and saw Rome become the most powerful state of the Western Mediterranean, with territory in Sicily, North Africa, Iberia, and with the end of the Macedonian wars (which ran concurrently with the Punic wars) Greece as well. If they tried to charge the enemy, the enemy did not suffer more and they did not suffer less, because the Parthians could shoot even as they fled...When Publius urged them to charge the enemy's mail-clad horsemen, they showed him that their hands were riveted to their shields and their feet nailed through and through to the ground, so that they were helpless either for flight or for self-defence, "Never was there slaughter more cruel than took place there in the marshes and woods, never were more intolerable insults inflicted by barbarians, especially those directed against the legal pleaders. The terrifying scope and vision of the Roman campaign to overrun and rule the Iberian Peninsula is revealed through its astonishing length. [337] Several succeeding generals avoided battling usurpers for the throne by being murdered by their own troops before battle could commence. Although they lost militarily, the Socii achieved their objectives with the legal proclamations of the Lex Julia and Lex Plautia Papiria, which granted citizenship to more than 500,000 Italians.[189]. In 105 BC the Romans were defeated at the Battle of Arausio and was the costliest Rome had suffered since the Battle of Cannae. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus' first war was waged against the Latins. Vespasian's and Vitellius' armies met in the Second Battle of Bedriacum,[294][297] after which the Vitellian troops were driven back into their camp outside Cremona, which was taken. [350] Militarily, however, the Empire finally fell after first being overrun by various non-Roman peoples and then having its heart in Italy seized by Germanic troops in a revolt. [311] The Carpi and Sarmatians whom Rome had held at bay were replaced by the Goths and likewise the Quadi and Marcomanni that Rome had defeated were replaced by the greater confederation of the Alamanni.[312]. However, it took two further defeats at the Battle of Nicaea later that year and the Battle of Issus the following year, for Niger to be destroyed. Ancus Marcius led Rome to victory against the Latins and, according to the Fasti Triumphales, over the Veientes and Sabines also. Unable to take the city by force of arms, Tarquin had his son, Sextus Tarquinius, infiltrate the city, gain the trust of its people and command of its army. The so-called Crisis of the Third Century describes the turmoil of murder, usurpation and in-fighting that followed the murder of the Emperor Alexander Severus in 235 AD. The Latins of Antemnae and those of Crustumerium were defeated next in a similar fashion. [329] However, Cassius Dio marks the wider imperial decline as beginning in 180 AD with the ascension of Commodus to the throne,[330] a judgement with which Gibbon concurred,[331] and Matyszak states that "the rot ... had become established long before" even that.[330]. In the same year the Goths inflicted a crushing defeat on the Eastern Empire at the Battle of Adrianople,[324][325] in which the Eastern Emperor Valens was massacred along with tens of thousands of Roman troops. [3] The second is the civil war, which plagued Rome from its foundation to its eventual demise. [180][189][190] Despite defeats such as the Battle of Fucine Lake, Roman troops defeated the Italian militias in decisive engagements, notably the Battle of Asculum. [32] Florus writes that at this time "their neighbours, on every side, were continually harassing them, as they had no land of their own ... and as they were situated, as it were, at the junction of the roads to Latium and Eturia, and, at whatever gate they went out, were sure to meet a foe. [49] After defeating the Veientes, the Romans had effectively completed the conquest of their immediate Etruscan neighbours,[50] as well as secured their position against the immediate threat posed by the tribespeople of the Apennine hills. Antony was denounced as a public enemy, and Octavian was entrusted with the command of the war against him. The extensive campaigning abroad by Rome, and the rewarding of soldiers with plunder from those campaigns, led to the trend of soldiers becoming increasingly loyal to their commanders rather than to the state, and a willingness to follow their generals in battle against the state. However, disputes soon broke out amongst the different tribes, rendering co-operation impossible; Vespasian, having successfully ended the civil war, called upon Civilis to lay down his arms, and on his refusal his legions met him in force, defeating him[276] in the Battle of Augusta Treverorum. After early Sassanid successes including the Battle of Amida in 359 AD and the Siege of Pirisabora in 363 AD,[345] Emperor Julian met Shapur in 363 AD in the Battle of Ctesiphon outside the walls of the Persian capital. The new war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power,[93] forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. Now that the Romans and Gauls had blooded one another, intermittent Roman-Gallic wars were to continue between the two in Italy for more than two centuries, including the Battle of Lake Vadimo,[53] the Battle of Faesulae in 225 BC, the Battle of Telamon in 224 BC, the Battle of Clastidium in 222 BC, the Battle of Cremona in 200 BC, the Battle of Mutina in 194 BC, the Battle of Arausio in 105 BC, the Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, and the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC. [199] After the Roman admiral Marcus Antonius Creticus (father of the triumvir Marcus Antonius) failed to clear the pirates to the satisfaction of the Roman authorities, Pompey was nominated his successor as commander of a special naval task force to campaign against them. This was done, and Tarquin formed combined units of Roman and Latin troops. [363] Without possession of Rome or many of its former provinces, and increasingly Germanic in nature, the Roman Empire after 410 AD had little in common with the earlier Empire. This pattern of meeting aggression in force and so inadvertently gaining territory in strategic counter-attacks was to become a common feature of Roman military history. [225] The triumvirate was shattered and conflict was inevitable. The history of Rome's campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses.[6][7]. [347] The Romans were victorious but were unable to take the city, and were forced to retreat due to their vulnerable position in the middle of hostile territory. The Cimbrian War (113–101 BC) was a far more serious affair than the earlier clashes of 121 BC. The history of Rome's campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses. 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