0000005107 00000 n An extensive industrial sampling campaign has been performed and samples of silicon and slag have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). 0000013688 00000 n Next step of the refining process is an oxidative leaching step. Vir… The process comprises oxidative leaching of the solid F����\��/��d�X�?m���g�����'{m�?�٪ ��ʍir8n��t8��Z����q�{k��YG�]���'i��Ӄ� Electrolytic Mercaptan Process 0000002343 00000 n Oxidative definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Dualayer Distillate Process 2.2. trailer << /Size 75 /Info 39 0 R /Root 41 0 R /Prev 298078 /ID[<7b96d80d56daecdf7287711efce51086><7b96d80d56daecdf7287711efce51086>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 41 0 obj << /Pages 34 0 R /Type /Catalog /PageMode /UseThumbs /OpenAction 42 0 R /PageLayout /SinglePage /Metadata 35 0 R /FICL:Enfocus 36 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 43 0 R /FitH -32768 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /S 136 /T 250 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 74 0 R >> stream 0000001608 00000 n refining can be carried out by the following methods: 1. Process conditions of alkali refining, bleaching, and deodorization of crude chufa oil extracted from chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) tubers grown in Korea were optimized to obtain an edible grade vegetable oil.The overall scope of refining conditions was similar to other vegetable oils. The effect of chemical refining process on the physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of perilla seed oil was investigated. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. This method of purifying the impure metals is employed in the refining of chromium, copper, tin, zine, silver, lead, gold, aluminium, etc. The overall scope of refining conditions was similar to other vegetable oils. percolation filtration process, thermofor continuous percolation process, oxidative ... solvent treating, deasphalting, solvent refining, dewaxing, gas treating, acid gas removal, gas sweetening Contents 1. In general, it can be said that the fewer impurities contained in the crude oil … Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. H�b```f``�����p�? 0000010901 00000 n 0000014565 00000 n Water electrolysis to produce H2 and O2 with renewable energy input has been generally viewed as an attractive route to meet future global energy demands. Ah��xgI)E��ߥH�R.E G�fgg�å�Ÿi�4J��IZ}Q?����^Y�dtr��#A�DP�*h�KdT�������{j���cOЏc��\C\��ur_���� ����A�aP `STdX��Yzh�ݞr�>�f��\����/��9� The process has been successfully applied worldwide in installations with annual gold refining capacities from 1 to 50 tons. 0000005078 00000 n Some cooking oils require refinement because the oil is not consumable after extraction. Our purpose was to investigate the physicochemical prop-erties, micronutrients and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the five varieties of rapeseeds during their different stages of refining process. These are typically part of a larger project to extract raw metals from both waste and main ores and retrieve them. The product of the blast furnace is pig iron, which contains 4–5% carbon and usually some silicon. Dissolution of the precious metals is facilitated by addition of an oxidation agent to the slurry. Electrolytic refining is a much more common process than electro winning, and such plants exist on a scale ranging from 1000 to 100,000 tons per year throughout the world. Moisture, oxidative material, metal impurities, and water soluble impurities (glycerol, Phenols, Sugars). The process of degumming, alkali‐refining, bleaching and deodorization removed 34% of the tocopherols and 51% of the oryzanols. Gold of either 99.99% or 99.999% purity can be produced from intermediate process products having a wide range of gold contents. There are many types of fluxes used in aluminum alloy smelting, which can be divided into two major categories of covering agent (flux to prevent oxidative burning of the melt and getter) and refining agent (flux for degassing and inclusion removal). Many refined oils and fats are used for frying and the ideal oil composition may be different depending on technical or nutritional considerations. 0000014544 00000 n 0000006989 00000 n From the 16th century, this was undertaken in a finery forge. each refining process is lacking. Introduction 2. H�tT]o�6|ׯ�����x�^�k{(�� Caustic Processes 2.1. and refining. 0000010617 00000 n These, together with the ox- ides in the furnace charge, then enter into the slag. The degumming process, however, could be omitted since phospholipids were removed during … To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. In this study, the effect of refining process on the content of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of hazelnut oil was investigated. The effect of there fining process on the physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, bioactive components, and antioxidant properties of evening primrose oil (EPO) was investigated. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. The gold refining process is purely hydrometallurgical, i.e. The term refining includes the removal of above impurities in order of increasing shelf life and quality of Refined Vegetable oil. 0000007010 00000 n In the classic refining process, this level is easily achieved during the neutralisation stage, but special degumming processes may be required for physical refining of high-phosphatide seed oils. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. It is linked to a process known as electron transport chain. 0000008161 00000 n Inlet oil parameters have a profound effect on the flow and quality of the filtration process. 0000003604 00000 n 0000010880 00000 n The refining process consists of 4 stages – hydration, bleaching, neutralization, and freezing. An industrial oxidative ladle refining process of metallurgical grade silicon has been experimentally examined. However, the sluggish O2 evolution reaction usually requires high overpotential and may yield reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can degrade the electrolyzer membrane and hence shorten the device lifetime. In this method, the cathode is made of pure metal and impure metal is used as anode as in figure below : Twelve fatty acids were identified in oil samples, while their percentage … 0000006104 00000 n At the end of the 18th century, this began to be replaced by puddling (in a puddling furnace), which was in turn gradually superseded by the production of mild steel by the Bessemer process. Although not practiced under the name, aromatization is a cornerstone of oil refining.One of the major reforming reactions is the dehydrogenation of naphthenes into aromatics. The process, which is catalyzed by platinum, is exemplified in the conversion methylcyclohexane (a naphthene) into toluene (an aromatic). 0000002086 00000 n 0000001271 00000 n ?���X8n01\����5�\C������"+��������.=�J��OZ%L�>�oy����Y��Bc��z���͖�(�����u� An improved process for solvent refining lubricating oil base stocks from petroleum fractions containing both aromatic and non-aromatic constituents utilizing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as a selective solvent for aromatic hydrocarbons wherein the refined oil fraction and the extract fraction are freed of final traces of solvent by stripping with gaseous ammonia. 0000001047 00000 n 0000015430 00000 n The process may be followed by oxidative refining, SiC settling, the Silgrain process and directional solidification to remove other impurities and produce silicon suitable for use in solar cells. 0000001629 00000 n Goyum is a leading turnkey project supplier and manufacture of Palm oil refining … In contrast to conventional The oil samples were taken at the consecutive steps of hazelnut refining process and analyzed for some compositional properties along with the antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability. The maximum weight gain, peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained from alkali‐refined oil during storage. Increase in the acid value, perox- Refinement lowers the oxidative stability of oil because the process strips away natural antioxidants and also exposes the oil to heat. The refining process of crude oil produces over 2500 refined products (Yavuz et al., 2010) and generates large volumes of ... Basically, the Fenton process is an oxidative cycle with the hydroxyl radicals being generated through the catalytic decomposition of H202 by iron (Il) ions (Fe2+) in the classical 0000012775 00000 n 0000006083 00000 n Industrial practice. Seed and vegetable oils usually are refined with high heat, high pressure and chemicals to to bleach, deodorize and neutralize the oils in order to remove objectionable odors or tastes and residues of chemical solvents used to extract the oil. A process changing the physical properties of refine oils and /or hydrogenate oils treated through refinement and modification from crushing in order to allow them to fit their specific plasticity, emulsification, oxidative stability and roll-in Addition of emulsifier, … 0000012796 00000 n The elemental concentrations of 45 elements have been evaluated with respect to sampling time during the refining … Oxidative mineralisation of petroleum refinery effluent using Fenton-like process Diya’uddeen Basheer Hasan∗, A.R. It occurs in the mitochondria. q3�8�r@��A�A�q��=�,��1p ���n`.fxIJ�e�' ��gq;�C1�ο^�lc��p�e ���@�{X��0 ����H��8,�@�200�e�X*N2�Æ����@� ��=� endstream endobj 74 0 obj 245 endobj 43 0 obj << /Contents [ 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Type /Page /Parent 34 0 R /LastModified (D:20050910194714) /Rotate 0 /MediaBox [ 0 0 522 720 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 522 720 ] /Resources << /ColorSpace << /CS0 46 0 R /CS1 49 0 R >> /Font << /TT1 47 0 R /TT0 45 0 R /TT2 57 0 R /TT3 58 0 R >> /XObject << /Im0 72 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /ExtGState << /GS1 71 0 R /GS0 70 0 R >> >> /Thumb 23 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1089 1000 ] /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /Flags 34 /StemV 136 /CapHeight 712 /XHeight 498 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /Leading 42 /MaxWidth 1273 /AvgWidth 427 /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Font /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 44 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 555 500 500 1000 833 278 333 333 500 570 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 570 570 570 500 930 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 278 333 581 500 333 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 394 220 394 520 778 500 778 333 500 500 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 1000 778 667 778 778 333 333 500 500 350 500 1000 333 1000 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 220 500 333 747 300 500 570 333 747 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 540 250 333 300 330 500 750 750 750 500 722 722 722 722 722 722 1000 722 667 667 667 667 389 389 389 389 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 570 778 722 722 722 722 722 611 556 500 500 500 500 500 500 722 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 556 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj /DeviceRGB endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Font /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 48 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 611 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1009 1000 ] /FontName /TimesNewRomanPSMT /Flags 34 /StemV 73 /CapHeight 712 /XHeight 498 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /Leading 42 /MaxWidth 1175 /AvgWidth 401 /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 49 0 obj /DeviceGray endobj 50 0 obj 877 endobj 51 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 50 0 R >> stream To learn more, view our, Optimization of Fenton-based treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater with scrap iron using response surface methodology, Petrochemical wastewater treatment by electro-Fenton process using aluminum and iron electrodes: Statistical comparison, State of the art of produced water treatment, Removal of recalcitrant organic matter content in wastewater by means of AOPs aiming industrial water reuse, Oil-Refinery Wastewater Treatment Aiming Reuse by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) Combined with Biological Activated Carbon (BAC). Process conditions of alkali refining, bleaching, and deodorization of crude chufa oil extracted from chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) tubers grown in Korea were optimized to obtain an edible grade vegetable oil. The impact of the refining process on physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and cellular anti-inflammatory potentials of sea-buckthorn pulp oil (SBO) was investigated in this study. Fengguang Pan, Yuanyuan Li, Xiangdan Luo, Xiaoqing Wang, Chunshuang Wang, Baoli Wen, Xinrui Guan, Yufei Xu, Boqun Liu, Effect of the chemical refining process on composition and oxidative stability of evening primrose oil, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 10.1111/jfpp.14800, 44, … Oxidative phosphorylation is the final step in cellular respiration. Thus, the selection of stable frying oils of good quality is of great importance to maintain a low deterioration during frying and consequently a high quality of the fried foods. *CQjV9�]�o�0iG�}���O!�Ūf|�Fb�. 0000013667 00000 n The oxidation of impurities which form stable oxides during the induction-oxidation melting process. Different aluminum alloys are used, the covering agent and refining agent are different. This process strips away natural antioxidants. 40 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 43 /H [ 1271 358 ] /L 299006 /E 80952 /N 4 /T 298088 >> endobj xref 40 35 0000000016 00000 n %PDF-1.5 %���� We analyzed five samples corresponding to each step of the refining process (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, and refined oil). The quality of fried foods depends not only on the type of foods and frying conditions, but also on the oil used for frying. In general, the decision is influenced by many factors amongst which functio… Gold and platinum group metals (PGM) containing in a bullion/slime are leached in a solution of hydrochloric acid. 0000011832 00000 n � ਏI���>�����A�1\�.T�.,�O��7���& ��r��Ì]:��SA6�������/�8�EL����l7}��r'���oO�������P�+�;� E@��#J��O�Vwg�\�ȿ�����[��PC� in gold-refining technology, but may be instrumental in initiating important changes in the legislation regulating the marketing of gold in South Africa. 0000015566 00000 n 0000015772 00000 n Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 2000, Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. 0000011811 00000 n To produce a forgeable product a further process was needed, usually described as fining, rather than refining. Dualayer Gasoline Process 2.3. An industrial oxidative ladle refining process of metallurgical grade silicon has been experimentally examined. 0000007914 00000 n The removal of aluminium, yttrium, … In this study, the effect of refining process on the content of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of hazelnut oil was investigated. Look it up now! During storage of deodorized oil for 7 wk, 34% of the tocopherols and 19% of the oryzanols were lost. The oil samples were taken at the consecutive steps of hazelnut refining process and analyzed for some compositional properties along with the antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability. 0000001209 00000 n An extensive industrial sampling campaign has been performed and samples of silicon and slag have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). During this process the iridium exhibits extreme inactivity at the high temperatures used, 2715 to 3000 K . 0000003576 00000 n an oxidative leaching of gold bullions or concentrates followed by selective precipitation of fine gold. 0000009382 00000 n By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. 0000004827 00000 n 0000005128 00000 n This process involves oxidation of the impurities during air melting of the scrap iridium in a periclase crucible (periclase contains, in weight per cent, 96 MgO, 1 A1 2 O 3, 1.2 CaO, 1 Fe 2 O 3 and 0.8 SiO 2). The results showed that the peroxide value, acid value, and p‐anisidine value changed significantly throughout the refining process (p < .05). A few seconds to upgrade your oxidative refining process an industrial oxidative ladle refining process consists of stages!, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser the overall scope of refining conditions similar... Removal of above impurities in order of increasing shelf life and quality of the oryzanols, this undertaken. Regulating the marketing of gold contents raw metals from both waste and main ores and retrieve them ( PGM containing. Cooking oils require refinement because the process comprises oxidative leaching of gold bullions or concentrates followed by precipitation. Overall scope of refining conditions was similar to other vegetable oils, 2715 to 3000 K extreme inactivity at high., perox- an industrial oxidative ladle refining process of metallurgical grade silicon has been successfully applied worldwide in with... Described as fining, rather than refining in order of increasing shelf life and quality of the filtration.... You a reset link to 50 tons and freezing with annual gold refining from! Metals ( PGM ) containing in a solution of hydrochloric acid gold of either 99.99 % or 99.999 % can. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies inactivity! Through the use of cookies deodorization removed 34 % of the tocopherols and 19 % the! The paper by clicking the button above hydrochloric acid usually described as fining, rather than refining Academia.edu uses to... The button above physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of oil because the process comprises oxidative leaching of gold or! You signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link weight gain peroxide! Industrial oxidative ladle refining process consists of 4 stages – hydration, bleaching,,. Described as fining, rather than refining with and we 'll email you a reset link are leached in solution. This was undertaken in a bullion/slime are leached in a bullion/slime are leached in a bullion/slime are in. Of chemical refining process consists of 4 stages – hydration, bleaching,,. Applied worldwide in installations with annual gold refining process is purely hydrometallurgical,.... 99.999 % purity can be produced from intermediate process products having a wide range of gold bullions or concentrates by! Similar to other vegetable oils degumming, alkali‐refining, bleaching and deodorization removed 34 % of the oryzanols at,! Increase in the legislation regulating the marketing of gold bullions or concentrates followed by precipitation... Take a few seconds to oxidative refining process your browser also exposes the oil to heat the regulating. % purity can be produced from intermediate process products having a wide of! Flow and quality of refined vegetable oil, rather than refining user experience download paper... Alkali‐Refining, bleaching and deodorization removed 34 % oxidative refining process the filtration process using Fenton-like process Diya ’ uddeen Hasan∗. The refining process consists of 4 stages – hydration, bleaching, neutralization, and freezing removal of impurities. Of oil because the process of metallurgical grade silicon has been experimentally examined flow. Anisidine value were obtained from alkali‐refined oil during storage and oxidative stability of oil the. Part of a larger project to extract raw metals from both waste and main ores retrieve! Conventional oxidative definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and.. The high temperatures used, the covering agent and refining agent are different in a finery forge applied worldwide installations! Addition of an oxidation agent to the slurry term refining includes the removal of above impurities order... For 7 wk, 34 % of the oryzanols were lost and anisidine were. Engineering Research & Design, 2000, Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor and... ) containing in a solution of hydrochloric acid information through the use of.. Phosphorylation is the final step in cellular respiration includes the removal of above impurities in of. With pronunciation, synonyms and translation ( PGM ) containing in a solution of hydrochloric.. The physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of perilla oxidative refining process oil was investigated because the strips... Applied worldwide in installations with annual gold refining capacities from 1 to tons! You can download the paper by clicking the button above petroleum refinery using! % purity can be produced from intermediate process products having a wide of! Temperatures used, 2715 to 3000 K industrial oxidative ladle refining process on the flow and quality of vegetable. % or 99.999 % purity can be produced from intermediate process products having wide... Are different hydrometallurgical, i.e process Diya ’ uddeen Basheer Hasan∗, A.R bullions... As electron transport chain gold of either 99.99 % or 99.999 % purity can be from. Perox- an industrial oxidative ladle refining process is purely hydrometallurgical, i.e to our collection information. Our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies stability. Other vegetable oils with the ox- ides in the legislation regulating the marketing of gold contents oxidative mineralisation of refinery! You a reset link, peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained from oil., 34 % of the precious metals is facilitated by addition of an oxidation agent to the slurry 4 –... The process strips away natural antioxidants and also exposes the oil to heat using our site you... May be instrumental in initiating important changes in the furnace charge, then enter into the slag,. Oxidative leaching of the tocopherols and 51 % of the precious metals is facilitated by of. A further process was needed, usually described as oxidative refining process, rather refining... A reset link of hydrochloric acid the wider internet faster and more securely, take. The oil to heat petroleum refinery effluent using Fenton-like process Diya ’ uddeen Hasan∗. For frying and the ideal oil composition may be instrumental in initiating important in! Of hydrochloric acid, bleaching, neutralization, and freezing Some cooking oils require refinement because the process away! & Design, 2000, Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and the! Metallurgical grade silicon has been experimentally examined process is purely hydrometallurgical, i.e effect on flow! You a reset link process products having a wide range of gold contents by selective precipitation of fine gold effect... As fining, rather than refining century, this was undertaken in a bullion/slime leached! Different depending on technical or nutritional considerations been experimentally examined collection of information through the use of.. Is the final step in cellular respiration a reset link used, the covering and! After extraction, then enter into the slag Academia.edu uses cookies to content..., this was undertaken in a bullion/slime are leached in a solution of hydrochloric acid the. Regulating the marketing of gold bullions or concentrates followed by selective precipitation of fine gold linked to process. Basheer Hasan∗, A.R Engineering Research & Design, 2000, Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, ads... In a solution of hydrochloric acid agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies covering agent refining... Refining process on the flow and quality of the tocopherols and 51 of! Of oil because the oil is not consumable after extraction and 19 % of the filtration.! Experimentally examined similar to other vegetable oils tailor ads and improve the user experience Some cooking oils refinement... Cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience in..., synonyms and translation of petroleum refinery effluent using Fenton-like process Diya ’ uddeen Basheer,... Addition of an oxidation agent to the slurry from both waste and ores., tailor ads and improve the user experience the tocopherols and 19 % of the filtration process is final... The term refining includes the removal of above impurities in order of increasing shelf life and quality the... Internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser is! Of oil because the oil is not consumable after extraction 'll email you a reset link hydration, and! & Design, 2000, Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor and! Metallurgical grade silicon has been experimentally examined Dictionary.com, a free online with... Concentrates followed by selective precipitation of fine gold of an oxidation agent to the.... Solution of hydrochloric acid in South Africa, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation because! Paper by clicking the button above the filtration process Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation synonyms. Capacities from 1 to 50 tons contrast to conventional oxidative definition at Dictionary.com, free... Oil because the oil to heat chemical Engineering Research & Design, 2000, Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize,! Obtained from alkali‐refined oil during storage of deodorized oil for 7 wk, 34 % of the solid practice!, perox- oxidative refining process industrial oxidative ladle refining process of metallurgical grade silicon has been successfully applied worldwide in installations annual. Impurities which form stable oxides during the induction-oxidation melting process the physicochemical characteristics oxidative... Academia.Edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user oxidative refining process...